Finnegan S, Harnik P, Lockwood R, Lotze HK, McClenachan L, Kahanamoku SS (2023) Using the fossil record to understand extinction risk and inform climate-adapted conservation in a changing ocean. Annual Review of Marine Sciences 16 (in press).
Bryndum-Buchholz A, Blanchard J, Coll M, Du Pontavice H, Everett JD, Guiet J, Heneghan RF, Maury O, Novaglio C, Palacios-Abrantes J, Petrik CM, Tittensor D, Lotze HK (2023) Future-proofing marine conservation planning in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Facets 8: 1-16.
Steiner NS, Cheung WWL, Drost H, Tai T, Holdsworth A, Palacios Abrantes J, Lotze HK, Wilson KL, Bryndum-Buchholz A, Nagabhatla N, Newell SL, Okey TA, Sumaila R (2023) Chapter 5 – Large-scale changes in Canada's oceans and coasts. In: Sumaila UR, Armitage D, Bailey M, Cheung WWL (eds) Canada’s Oceans: Pathways to Sustainability in a Sea of Change, UBC Press, Vancouver, Canada (forthcoming)
Tai T, Palacios Abrantes J, Cheung WWL, Sumaila UR, Lotze HK, Wilson K, Bryndum-Buchholz A, Talloni-Alvarez N, Saltos JJA, Hoover C, Courtenay S, Armitage DR, Harper S, Whitney C, Ban N (2023) Chapter 6 – Rapid changes in Canada's oceans. In: Sumaila UR, Armitage D, Bailey M, Cheung WWL (eds) Canada’s Oceans: Pathways to Sustainability in a Sea of Change, UBC Press, Vancouver, Canada (forthcoming).
Bryndum-Buchholz A, Lotze HK, Novaglio C, Eddy TD. 2023. Ocean Biomass and Climate Change. Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science, 2nd Edition.
Yasuhara M, Huang HHM, Reuter M, Tian SY, Cybulski JD, O’Dea A, Mamo BL, Cotton LJ, Di Martino E, Feng R, Tabor CR, Reygondeau G, Zhao Q, Warne MT, Aye K, Zhang J, Chao A, Wei CL, Condamine FL, Kocsis AT, Kiessling W, Costello MJ, Tittensor DP, Chaudhary C, Rillo MC, Doi H, Dong YW, Cronin TM, Saupe EE, Lotze HK, Johnson KG, Renema W, Pandolfi JM, Harzhauser M, Jackson JBC, Hong Y (2023) Hotspots of Cenozoic tropical marine biodiversity. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review 6: 243-300. DOI: 10.1201/9781003288602-5


Bryndum-Buchholz A, Boerder K, Stanley RRE, Hurley I, Boyce DG, Dunmall KM, Hunter KL, Lotze HK, Shackell NL, Worm B, Tittensor DP (2022) A climate-resilient marine conservation network for Canada. Facets 7: 571-590.
Lotze HK, Mellon S, Coyne J, Betts M, Burchell M, Fennel K, Dusseault MA, Fuller SD, Galbraith E, Suarez LG, de Gelleke L, Golombek N, Kelly B, Kuehn SD, Oliver E, MacKinnon M, Muraoka W, Predham ITG, Rutherford K, Shackell N, Sherwood O, Sibert EC, Kienast M (2022) Long-term ocean and resource dynamics in a hotspot of climate change. Facets 7: 1142-1184.
Murphy GEP, Kelly N, Lotze HK, Wong M (2022) Incorporating anthropogenic thresholds to improve understanding of cumulative effects on seagrass beds. Facets 7: 966-987.


Bryndum-Buchholz A, Tittensor DP, Lotze HK (2021) The status of climate change adaptation in fisheries management: policy, legislation, and implementation. Fish and Fisheries 22(6):1248-1273,
Grémillet D, Hardesty BD, Lotze HK, Obura D, Pauly D, Shin Y-J, Sumaila UR (2021) The oceans and COVID-19: A ten-point agenda for action. In Pauly D, Chu E (eds) Marine and Freshwater Miscellanea III. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 29(1): 41-44. Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia.
Lotze HK (2021) Primer: Marine biodiversity conservation. Current Biology 31: R1141–R1224,
Lotze HK, Bryndum-Buchholz A, Boyce DG (2021) Effects of climate change on food production (Fishing). Chapter 8 in: Letcher T (ed) The Impacts of Climate Change: Comprehensive Study of the Physical, Societal and Political Issues. 1st Edition, Elsevier, Pages 205-231,  
Makareviciute-Fichtner K, Matthiessen B, Lotze HK, Sommer U (2021) Phytoplankton nutritional quality is altered by shifting Si:N ratios and selective grazing. Journal of Plankton Research 43(3):325–337,
Martin MA, Alcaraz Sendra O, Bastos A, Bauer N, Bertram C, Blenckner T, Bowen K, Brando PM, Rudolph TB, Büchs M, Bustamante M, Chen D, Cleugh H, Dasgupta P, Denton F, Donges JF, Donkor FK, Duan H, Duarte CM, Ebi KL, Edwards CM, Engel A, Fisher E, Fuss S, Gaertner J, Gettelman A, Girardin CAJ, Golledge NR, Green JF, Grose MR, Hashizume M, Hebden S, Hepach H, Hirota M, Hsu HH, Kojima S, Lele S, Lorek S, Lotze HK, Matthews HD, McCauley D, Mebratu D, Mengis N, Nolan RH, Pihl E, Rahmstorf S, Redman A, Reid CE, Rockström J, Rogelj J, Saunois M, Sayer L, Schlosser P, Sioen GB, Spangenberg JH, Stammer D, Sterner TNS, Stevens N, Thonicke K, Tian H, Winkelmann R, Woodcock J (2021) Ten new insights in climate science 2021: a horizon scan. Global Sustainability 4(e25): 1-20.
Milewski I, Smith RE, Lotze HK (2021) Interactions between finfish aquaculture and American lobster in Atlantic Canada. Ocean and Coastal Management 210:105664,
Murphy GEP, Dunic J, Adamczyk EM, Bittick SJ, Côté IM, Cristiani J, Geissinger EA, Gregory RS, Lotze HK, O’Connor MI, Araújo CAS, Rubidge EM, Templeman ND, Wong MC (2021) From coast to coast to coast: Ecology and management of seagrass ecosystems across Canada. Facets 6: 139-179,
Nagel EJ, Murphy G, Fast J, Bittick SJ, Adamczyk E, O’Connor M, Wong MC, Lotze HK (2021) Application of a coastal human impact metric and nitrogen loading model to ten eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows in British Columbia. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 3429: vii + 45 p.
Shackell NL, Keith DM, Lotze HK (2021) Challenges of Gauging the Impact of Area-Based Fishery Closures and OECMs: A Case Study Using Long-Standing Canadian Groundfish Closures. Frontiers in Marine Science 8:612859,
Sumaila UR, Skerritt D, Schuhbauer A, Villasante S, Cisneros-Montemayor AM, Sinan H, Burnside D, and 289 co-authors including Lotze HK (2021) WTO negotiators must eliminate harmful fisheries subsidies. Letter, Science 374(6567):544,
Tittensor DP, Novaglio C, Harrison CS, Heneghan RF, Barrier N, Bianchi D, Bopp L, Bryndum-Buchholz A, Britten GL, Büchner M, Cheung WWL, Christensen V, Coll M, Dunne JP, Eddy TD, Everett JD, Fernandes-Salvador JA, Fulton EA, John JG, Galbraith ED, Gascuel D, Guiet J, Link JS, Lotze HK, Lynam C, Maury O, Ortega-Cisneros K, Palacios-Abrantes J, Petrik CM, du Pontavicer H, Rault J, Richardson AE, Shannon L, Shin Y-J, Steenbeek J, Stock CA, Blanchard J (2021) Next-generation Earth system models reveal higher climate risks for marine ecosystems. Nature Climate Change 11: 973-981.
Worm B, Lotze HK (2021) Marine biodiversity and climate change. Chapter 21 in: Letcher T (ed) Climate and global change: observed impacts on Planet Earth. 3rd Edition, Elsevier: Pages 445-464,


Boyce D, Lotze HK, Tittensor DP, Carozza D, Worm B (2020) Future ocean biomass losses may widen socioeconomic equity gaps. Nature Communications 11: 2235.      
Bryndum-Buchholz A, Boyce DG, Tittensor DP, Christensen V, Bianchi D, Lotze HK (2020) Climate change impacts and fisheries management challenges in the North Atlantic Ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series 648: 1-17,
Bryndum-Buchholz A, Prentice F, Tittensor DP, Blanchard JL, Cheung WWL, Christensen V, Galbraith ED, Maury O, Lotze HK (2020) Differing marine animal biomass shifts under 21st century climate change between Canada’s three oceans. FACETS 5:105–122.
Coll M, Steenbeek J, Pennino MG, Buszowski J, Garilao C, Kaschner K, Lotze HK, Rousseau Y, Tittensor DP, Walters C, Watson R, Christensen V (2020). Advancing global ecological modelling capabilities to simulate future trajectories of change in marine ecosystems. Frontiers in Marine Science 7:741,
Duarte CM, Agusti S, Barbier E, Britten GL, Castilla JC, Gattuso J-P, Fulweiler RW, Hughes TP, Knowlton N, Lovelock CE, Lotze HK, Predragovic M, Poloczanska E, Roberts C, Worm B (2020) Rebuilding marine life. Nature 580: 39-51. 
Lotze HK (2020) Combining love and knowledge to heal the ocean. In Bearzi G, Stergiou KI (eds) Theme Section 'Marine Biology in a World of Wounds'. Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics 20:33-39,
Lotze HK (2020) Warmer oceans will harbor lower animal abundance. The Science Breaker.
Makareviciute-Fichtner K, Mathieson B, Lotze HK, Sommer U (2020) Decrease in diatom dominance at lower Si:N ratios alters plankton food webs. Journal of Plankton Research 42(4):411–424,  
Wilson K, Tittensor DP, Worm B, Lotze HK (2020) Incorporating climate change adaption into marine protected area planning. Global Change Biology 26: 3251–3267.


Bryndum-Buchholz A, Tittensor D, Blanchard JL, Cheung WWL, Coll M, Galbraith ED, Jennings S, Maury O, Lotze HK (2019) Twenty-first-century climate change impacts on marine animal biomass and ecosystem structure across ocean basins. Global Change Biology 25:459–472.  
Hurley I, Wringe BF, den Heyer CE, Shackell NL, Lotze HK (2019) Spatio-temporal bycatch analysis of the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) longline fishery survey indicate hotspots for species of conservation concern. Conservation Science and Practice 1:e3.
Shin Y-S, Arneth A, Chowdhury RR, Midgley GF (Lead authors) (2019) Plausible futures of nature, its contributions to people and their good quality of life. Chapter 4 in Brondizio ES, Settele J, Díaz S, Ngo HT (eds) Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, IPBES Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (Contributing author).
Bindoff NL, Cheung WWL, Kairo JG, Arístegui J, Guinder VA, Hallberg R, Hilmi N, Jiao N, Karim MS, Levin L, O’Donoghue S, Purca Cuicapusa SR, Rinkevich B, Suga T, Tagliabue A, Williamson P (Lead authors) (2019) Changing ocean, marine ecosystems, and dependent communities. Chapter 5 in: Pörtner H-O, Roberts DC, Masson-Delmotte V, Zhai P, Tignor M, Poloczanska E, Mintenbeck K, Alegría A, Nicolai M, Okem A, Petzold J, Rama B, Weyer NM (eds), Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change, IPCC Special Report for the Ocean and Cryosphere in the Changing Climate (Contributing author).
Lotze HK, Tittensor DP, Bryndum-Buchholz A, Eddy TD, Cheung WWL, Galbraith ED, Barange M, Barrier N, Bianchi D, Blanchard JL, Bopp L, Büchner M, Bulman CM, Carozza DA, Christensen V, Coll M, Dunne JP, Fulton EA, Jennings S, Jones MC, Mackinson S, Maury O, Niiranen S, Oliveros-Ramos R, Roy T, Fernandes JA, Schewe J, Shin Y-J, Silva TAM, Steenbeek J, Stock CA, Verley P, Volkholz J, Walker ND, Worm B (2019) Global ensemble projections reveal trophic amplification of ocean biomass declines with climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 116(26): 12907–12912.
Lotze HK, Milewski I, Fast J, Kay L, Worm B (2019) Ecosystem-based management of seaweed harvesting. Botanica Marina 62(5): 395-409.
Lotze HK (2019) Fishing for invertebrates is increasing dramatically, and it’s impacting marine ecosystems: How we can manage invertebrate fisheries better. The Skimmer - Marine Ecosystems and Management (MEAM) October 13:1.
McIver R, Schmidt AL, Cullain N, Lotze HK (2019) Linking estimates of nitrogen loading and watershed characteristics to eelgrass bed structure and eutrophication symptoms across 7 bays in Atlantic Canada. Marine Environmental Research 144: 141-153.
Murphy GEP, Wong M, Lotze HK (2019) A human impact metric for coastal ecosystems with application to seagrass beds in Atlantic Canada. Facets 4: 210–237.
Schewe J, Gosling SN, Reyer C, Zhao F, Ciais P, Elliott J, Francois L, Huber V, Lotze HK, Seneviratne SI, van Vliet MTH, Vautard R, Wada Y, Breuer L, Büchner M, Carozza DA, Chang J, Coll M, Deryng D, de Wit A, Eddy TD, Folberth C, Frieler K, Friend AD, Gerten D, Gudmundsson L, Hanasaki N, Ito A, Khabarov N, Kim H, Lawrence P, Morfopoulos C, Müller C, Müller Schmied H, Orth R, Ostberg S, Pokhrel Y, Pugh TAM, Sakurai G, Satoh Y, Schmid E, Stacke T, Steenbeek J, Steinkamp J, Tang Q, Tian H, Tittensor D, Volkholz J, Wang X, Warszawski L (2019) State-of-the-art global models underestimate impacts from climate extremes. Nature Communications 10:1005.
Tittensor DP, Beger M, Börder K, Boyce D, Cavanagh R, Cosandey-Godin A, Crespo GO, Dunn D, Ghiffary W, Grant SM, Hannah L, Halpin P, Harfoot M, Heaslip SG, Jeffery NW, Kingston N, Lotze HK, McLeod E, McGowan J, McOwen CJ, O’Leary BC, Schiller L, Stanley RRE, Westhead M, Wilson KL, Worm B (2019) Integrating climate adaptation and biodiversity conservation in the global ocean. Science Advances 5(11):eaay9969.
Tittensor DP, Beger M, Börder K, Boyce D, Cavanagh R, Cosandey-Godin A, Crespo GO, Dunn D, Ghiffary W, Grant SM, Hannah L, Halpin P, Harfoot M, Heaslip SG, Jeffery NW, Kingston N, Lotze HK, McLeod E, McGowan J, McOwen CJ, O’Leary BC, Schiller L, Stanley RRE, Westhead M, Wilson KL, Worm B (2019) Integrating climate adaptation and biodiversity conservation in the global ocean. v4, Dryad, Dataset,
Wilson KL, Lotze HK (2019) Projected range shift of eelgrass (Zostera marina) in the Northwest Atlantic with climate change. Marine Ecology Progress Series 620: 47–62.
Wilson KL, Skinner MA, Lotze HK (2019) Eelgrass (Zostera marina) and benthic habitat mapping in Atlantic Canada using high-resolution SPOT 6/7 satellite imagery. Estuaries and Coastal Shelf Science 226: 106292.
Wilson KL, Skinner MA, Lotze HK (2019) Projected 21st century distribution of canopy-forming seaweeds in the Northwest Atlantic with climate change. Diversity and Distribution 25: 582-602.


Tittensor DP, Eddy TD, Lotze HK, Galbraith ED, Cheung WWL, Barange M, Blanchard J, Bopp L, Büchner M, Bulman C, Carozza DA, Christensen V, Coll M, Fulton EA, Hobday A, Huber V, Jennings S, Jones M, Lehodey P, Link JS, Mackinson S, Maury O, Niiranen S, Ramos RO, Roy T, Salvador JF, Schewe J, Shin Y-J, Watson J, Walker N (2018) A protocol for the intercomparison of marine fishery and ecosystem models: Fish-MIP v1.0. Geoscientific Model Development 11: 1421-1442.
Cullain N, McIver R, Schmidt AL, Lotze HK (2018) Correction to: Spatial variation of macroinfaunal communities associated with Zostera marina beds across three biogeographic regions in Atlantic Canada. Estuaries and Coasts,
Cullain N, McIver R, Schmidt AL, Milewski I, Lotze HK (2018) Potential impacts of finfish aquaculture on eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds and possible monitoring metrics for management: a case study in Atlantic Canada. PeerJ 6:e5630.
Eddy, T.D., Bulman, C. M., Cheung, W., Coll, M., Fulton, E. A., Galbraith, E., Lotze, H. K., Mackinson, S., Niiranen, S., Oliveros-Ramos, R., Piroddi, C., Steenbeek, J., Tittensor, D. P.,Walker, N.D., Schewe, J., Volkholz, J., and Büchner, M. (2018) ISIMIP2a Simulation Data from Marine Ecosystems and Fisheries (regional) Sector, GFZ Data Services,
Namba M, Lotze HK, Schmidt AS (2018) Large-scale differences in community structure and ecosystem services associated with of eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds across three regions in Eastern Canada. Estuaries and Coasts 41(1): 177-192.
Lotze HK, Froese R, Pauly D (2018) The future of marine fisheries. In Pauly D, Ruiz-Leotaud V (eds) Marine and Freshwater Miscellanea. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 26(2): 5-13. Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia.
Milewski I, Loucks RH, Fisher B, Smith RE, McCain JSP, Lotze HK (2018) Sea-cage aquaculture impacts market and berried lobster (Homarus americanus) catches. Marine Ecology Progress Series 598: 85-97.
Nagel EJ, Murphy G, Wong MC, Lotze HK (2018) Nitrogen loading rates for twenty-one seagrass inhabited bays in Nova Scotia, Canada. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 3260: v + 37 p.,
Lotze HK, Guest H, O’Leary J, Tuda A, Wallace D (2018) Public perceptions of marine threats and protection from around the world. Ocean & Coastal Management  152: 14-22.    
Cullain N, McIver R, Schmidt AL, Lotze HK (2018) Spatial variation of macroinfaunal communities associated with Zostera marina beds across three biogeographic regions in Atlantic Canada. Estuaries and Coasts 41(5): 1381-1396.
Tittensor, D. P., Galbraith, E., Barange, M., Barrier, N., Blanchard, J., Bopp, L., Bryndum-Buchholz, A., Carozza, D., Cheung, W., Christensen, V., Coll, M., Eddy, T., Fernandes Salvador, J. A., Hobday, A., Jennings, S., Jones, M., Lehodey, P., Lotze, H. K., Maury, O., Steenbeek, J., Underwood, P. J., Watson, J., Schewe, J., Volkholz, J., and Büchner, M. (2018) ISIMIP2a Simulation Data from Marine Ecosystems and Fisheries (global) Sector, GFZ Data Services,


Frieler K, Betts R, Burke E, Ciais P, Denvil S, Deryng D, Ebi K, Eddy T, Emanuel K, Elliott J, Galbraith E, Gosling SN, Halladay K, Hattermann F, Hickler T, Hinkel J, Huber V, Jones C, Krysanova V, Lange S, Lotze HK, Lotze-Campen H, Mengel M, Mouratiadou I, Müller Schmied H, Ostberg S, Piontek F, Popp A, Reyer CPO, Schewe J, Stevanovic M, Suzuki T, Thonicke K, Tian H, Tittensor DP, Vautard R, van Vliet M, Warszawski L, Zhao F (2017) Assessing the impacts of 1.5°C global warming - simulation protocol of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP2b). Geoscientific Model Development 10: 1-25.
Srivastava DS, McCune JL, Lotze HK (2017) Canada’s environment: why planning for the future requires looking at the past. Reflections of Canada: Illuminating our biggest opportunities and challenges at 150 years. Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies: 283-289.
Lotze HK, Mills Flemming J, Magera A (2017) Critical factors to marine mammal recovery. Conservation Biology 31(6): 1301-1311.
Eddy TD, Lotze HK, Fulton EA, Coll M, Ainsworth CH, Araújo JN, Bulman C, Bundy A, Christensen V, Field JC, Gribble N, Hasan M, Mackinson S, Townsend H (2017) Ecosystem effects of invertebrate fisheries. Fish and Fisheries 18: 40-53, doi: 10.1111/faf.12165.
Eddy TD, Araújo JN, Bundy A, Fulton EA, Lotze HK (2017) Effectiveness of lobster fisheries management in New Zealand and Nova Scotia from multi-species and ecosystem perspectives. ICES Journal of Marine Science 74: 146-157. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsw127.
Eddy TD, Coll M, Fulton EA, Lotze HK (2017) Invertebrate fisheries are growing, but often poorly understood. Lenfest Ocean Program Fact Sheet July 2017.
Blanchard JL, Watson RA, Fulton EA, Cottrell RS, Nash KL, Buchholz A, Büchner M, Carozza D, Cheung W, Elliott J, Davidson L, Dulvy NK, Dunnex JP, Eddy TD, Galbraith E, Lotze HK, Maury O, Müller C, Tittensor D, Jennings S (2017) Linked sustainability challenges and trade-offs among fisheries, aquaculture and agriculture. Nature Ecology and Evolution 1: 1240–1249. doi:10.1038/s41559-017-0258-8.
Ambsdorf J, Engel A, Grabe J, Kronfeld-Goharani U, Latif M, Lenz M, Lotze HK, Matz-Lück N, Müller A, Neumann B, Ott K, Petersen S, Quaas M, Reusch TBH, Riebesell U, Schulz C, Unmüßig B, Unger S, Visbeck M, Wahl M, Wallmann KJG, Wodtke L (2017) Meeresatlas: Daten und Fakten über unseren Umgang mit dem Ozean. Heinrich Böll Stiftung, Germany.
Ambsdorf J, Engel A, Grabe J, Kronfeld-Goharani U, Latif M, Lenz M, Lotze HK, Matz-Lück N, Müller A, Neumann B, Ott K, Petersen S, Quaas M, Reusch TBH, Riebesell U, Schulz C, Unmüßig B, Unger S, Visbeck M, Wahl M, Wallmann KJG, Wodtke L (2017) Ocean Atlas: Facts and Figures about Our Relationship with the Ocean. Heinrich Böll Stiftung, Germany.
Worm B, Lotze HK, Jubinville I, Wilcox C, Jambeck J (2017). Plastic as a persistent marine pollutant. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 42: 1-26. doi:10.1146/annurev-environ-102016-060700.
Schmidt AL, Coll M, Lotze HK (2017) Regional-scale differences in eutrophication effects on eelgrass (Zostera marina) associated fauna. Estuaries and Coasts 40: 1096–1112. DOI:10.1007/s12237-016-0204-z.


Baker DGL, Eddy TD, McIver R, Schmidt AL, Thériault M-H,  Boudreau M, Courtenay SC, Lotze HK (2016) Comparative analysis of different survey methods for monitoring fish communities in coastal habitats. PeerJ 4:e1832. doi:10.7717/peerj.1832.
Coll M, Lotze HK (2016) Ecological indicators and food-web models as tools to study historical changes in marine ecosystems. In Schwerdtner Máñez K, Poulsen B (eds) Perspectives on Oceans Past: A Handbook of Marine Environmental History. Springer Publishers: 103-132.
Lotze HK, Froese R, Pauly D (2016) Die Meeresfischerei der Zukunft. In Lozán J, Breckle S, Müller R, Rachor E & NN (eds) Warnsignale Klima: Die Biodiversität. Wissenschaftliche Auswertungen, Hamburg: 284-290. Online: doi:10.2312/warnsignal.klima.
McCain JSP, Rangeley RW, Schneider DC, Lotze HK (2016) Historical abundance of juvenile commercial fish in coastal habitats: Implications for fish habitat management in Canada. Marine Policy 73:235–243. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2016.08.009.
Kay L, Schmidt AL, Wilson K, Lotze HK (2016) Cumulative effects of climate warming and eutrophication on the habitat-forming rockweed Ascophyllum nodosum. Aquatic Botany 133:70-78. doi: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2016.06.002.
Kay L, Eddy TD, Schmidt AL, Lotze HK (2016) Regional differences and linkage between canopy structure and community composition of rockweed habitats in Atlantic Canada. Marine Biology 163: 251. doi:10.1007/s00227-016-3027-3.
Lotze HK (2016) Überfischung und Biodiversitätsverlust – Zu viele Fische im Netz. Politische Ökologie 145: 32-38.

McCain JSP, Cull DJ, Schneider DC, Lotze HK (2016) Long-term shift in coastal fish communities before and after the collapse of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), ICES Journal of Marine Science 73(5):1415-1426. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsv216.

Ruane AC, Teichmann C, Arnell N, Carter T, Ebi K, Frieler K, Goodess C, Hewitson B, Horton R, Kovats S, Lotze HK, Mearns L, Navarra A, Ojima D, Riahi K, Rosenzweig C, Themessl M, Vincent K, Meehl G (2016) The Vulnerability, Impacts, Adaptation and Climate Services Advisory Board (VIACS AB v1.0) contribution to CMIP6. Geoscientific Model Development 9: 3493-3515. doi:10.5194/gmd-9-3493-2016.

Worm B, Lotze HK (2016) Marine biodiversity and climate change. Chapter 13 in: Letcher T (ed) Climate and global change: observed impacts on Planet Earth2nd Edition, Elsevier: 195-212.


Eddy TD, Coll M, Fulton EA, Lotze HK (2015) Trade-offs between invertebrate fisheries catches and ecosystem impacts in coastal New Zealand. ICES Journal of Marine Science 72(5): 1380-1388. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsv009.
Eddy-etal_2015_ICES-JMS.pdf download View
Ellis JE, Rowe S, Lotze HK (2015) Expansion of hagfish fisheries in Atlantic Canada and worldwide. Fisheries Research 161: 24-33. doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2014.06.011.
Ellis-etal_2015_FishRes_Expansion-of-hagfish-fisheries.pdf download View

Finnegan S, Anderson SC, Harnik PG, Simpson C, Tittensor DP, Byrnes JE, Finkel ZV, Lindberg SR, Hsiang Liow L, Lockwood R, Lotze HK, McClain CM, McGuire JL, O’Dea A, Pandolfi JM (2015) Paleontological baselines for evaluating extinction risk in the coastal oceans. Science 348 (6234): 567-570. doi:10.1126/science.aaa6635.

Finnegan-etal_2015_Science1.pdf download View

Guest H, Lotze HK, Wallace D (2015) Youth and the Sea: Ocean Literacy in Nova Scotia. Marine Policy 58: 98–107. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2015.04.007.

Guest-etal_2015_MarPol1.pdf download View

Lotze HK (2015) What Recovery of Exploited Marine Animals tells us about Management and Conservation. In Kittinger JN, McClenachan LE, Gedan K, Blight LK (eds) Marine Historical Ecology in Conservation: Using the Past to Manage for the Future. University of California Press: 15-37.

McIver R, Milewski I, Lotze HK (2015) Land use and nitrogen loading in seven estuaries along the Southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. Estuaries and Coastal Shelf Science 165: 137–148. doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2015.08.011.

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Orzechowski EA, Lockwood R, Byrnes JE, Anderson SC, Finkel ZV, Finnegan S, Harnik PG, Lindberg DR, Hsiang Liow L, Lotze HK, McClain CR, McGuire JL, O’Dea A, Pandolfi JM, Simpson C, Tittensor DP (2015) Determinants of extinction selectivity over the last 500 million years: a meta-analysis of marine bivalves and gastropods. Global Change Biology 21(10): 3595–3607. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12963.

Orzechowski-et-al.-2015-GCB.pdf download View

Wilson KL, Kay L, Schmidt AL, Lotze HK (2015) Effects of rising ocean temperatures on survival and growth of ecologically and economically important seaweeds in Atlantic Canada. Marine Biology 162(12): 2431-2444. doi:10.1007/s00227-015-2769-7.

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Britten GL, Dowd M, Minto C, Ferretti F, Boero F, Lotze HK (2014) Loss of predators can destabilize marine communities. Lenfest Ocean Program Fact Sheet September 2014.

Britten GL, Dowd M, Minto C, Ferretti F, Boero F, Lotze HK (2014) Predator decline leads to decreased stability in a coastal fish community. Ecology Letters 17: 1518–1525. doi: 10.1111/ele.12354.

Britten-etal_2014_EcolLett.pdf download View

Lotze HK, Hoffmann RC, Erlandson JM (2014) Lessons from historical ecology and management. In Fogarty MJ, McCarthy JJ (eds) The Sea Volume 16: Marine Ecosystem-Based Management. Harvard University Press: 17-55.

Lotze HK, McClenachan L (2014) Marine Historical Ecology: informing the future by learning from the past. In Bertness MD, Silliman BR, Bruno JF, Stachowicz JJ (eds) Marine Community Ecology and Conservation. Sinauer: 165-200.


Ferretti F, Osio CG, Jenkins CJ, Rosenberg AA, Lotze HK (2013) Long-term change in a meso-predator community in response to prolonged and heterogeneous human impact. Scientific Reports 3: 1057. doi:10.1038/srep01057.

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Magera AM, Flemming JM, Kaschner K, Christensen LB, Lotze HK (2013) Recovery trends in marine mammal populations. PLoS ONE 8(10): e77908. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077908.

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Anderson SC, Branch TA, Ricard D, Lotze HK (2012) Assessing global marine fishery status with a revised dynamic catch-based method and stock-assessment reference points. ICES Journal of Marine Science 69(8): 1491-1500. doi:10.1093/icesjms/FSS105.

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Harnik PG, Lotze HK, Anderson SC, Finkel ZV, Finnegan S, Lindberg DR, Liow LH, Lockwood R, McClain CR, McGuire JL, O'Dea A, Pandolfi J, Simpson C, Tittensor DP (2012) Extinctions in ancient and modern seas Trends in Ecology & Evolution 27(11): 608-617. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2012.07.010.

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Lotze HK (2012) Marine biodiversity and protected areas. Invited book review. The Quarterly Review of Biology 87(2): 151-152.

Lotze HK (2012) Sea of Plenty? Historical trends, current issues, and future perspectives on our use of seafood. In: Stewart RS, Karol SA (eds) Food For Thought: A Multidisciplinary Discussion. Cape Breton University Press: 151-178.

Schmidt AL, Wysmyk JKC, Craig S, Lotze HK (2012) Regional-scale effects of eutrophication on ecosystem structure and services of seagrass beds. Limnology and Oceanography 57: 1389-1402.

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Ward-Paige CA, Keith D, Worm B, Lotze HK (2012) Recovery potential and conservation options for elasmobranchs. Journal of Fish Biology 80: 1844-1869, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2012.03246.x.

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Anderson SC, Farmer RG, Ferretti F, Houde AL, Hutchings JA (2011) Correlates of Vertebrate Extinction Risk in Canada. BioScience 61(7): 538-549, doi: 10.1525/bio.2011.61.7.8 .

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Anderson SC, Mills Flemming J, Watson R, Lotze HK (2011) Rapid global expansion of invertebrate fisheries: trends, drivers, and ecosystem effects. PLoS ONE 6(3): e14735. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014735.

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Coll M, Schmidt AL, Romanuk, T, Lotze (2011) Food-web structure of seagrass communities across different spatial scales and human impacts. PLoS ONE 6(7): e22591. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022591.

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Lotze HK, Coll M, Dunne J (2011) Historical Changes in Marine Resources, Food-web Structure and Ecosystem Functioning in the Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean. Ecosystems 14(2):198-222, doi: 10.1007/s10021-010-9404-8 .

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Lotze HK, Coll M, Magera AM, Ward-Paige CA, Airoldi L (2011) Recovery of marine animal populations and ecosystems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26(11): 595-605.

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Lotze HK, Erlandson JM, Newman MJ, Norris RD, Roy K, Smith TD, Whitcraft C (2011) Uncovering the ocean’s past. In: Jackson JBC, Alexander KE, Sala E (eds) Shifting Baselines: The Past and the Future of Ocean Fisheries. Island Press: 137-162.

Lotze HK (2011) Defining a target ecosystem by what it used to be like. Marine Ecosystems and Management (MEAM) 4 (6): 4.

Schmidt AL, Coll M, Romanuk T, Lotze HK  (2011) Ecosystem structure and services in eelgrass (Zostera marina) and rockweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) habitats. Marine Ecology Progress Series 437:51-68, doi: 10.3354/meps09276.

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Ward-Paige C, Pattengill-Semmens C, Myers RA, Lotze HK (2011) Spatial and temporal trends in yellow stingray abundance: evidence from diver surveys. Environmental Biology of Fishes 90:263–276. DOI 10.1007/s10641-010-9739-1 .

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Ward-Paige CA, Lotze HK (2011) Assessing the value of recreational divers for censusing elasmobranchs. PLoS ONE 6(10): e25609. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025609.

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Coll M, Piroddi C, Steenbeek J, Kaschner K, Lasram FBR, Aguzzi1 J, Ballesteros E, Bianchi CN, Corbera J, Dailianis T, Danovaro R, Estrada M, Froglia C, Galil BS, Gaso JM, Gertwagen R, Gil J, Guilhaumon F, Kesner-Reyes K, Kitsos MS, Koukouras A, Lampadariou N, Laxamana E, López-Fé de la Cuadra CM, Lotze HK, Martin D, Mouillot D, Oro D, Raicevich S, Rius-Barile J, Saiz-Salinas JI, San Vicente C, Somot S, Templado J, Turon X, Dimitris V, Villanueva R, Voultsiadou E (2010) Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns and threats. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11842. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011842.

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Ferretti F, Worm B, Britten GL, Heithaus MR, Lotze HK (2010) Consequences of large shark declines. Lenfest Ocean Program Research Series Report August 2010.

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Ferretti F, Worm B, Britten GL, Heithaus MR, Lotze HK (2010) Patterns and ecosystem consequences of shark declines in the ocean. Ecology Letters 13: 1055-1071.

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Lotze HK (2010) Historical Reconstruction of Human-Induced Changes in U.S. Estuaries. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 48: 265-336.

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McCauley DJ, Micheli F, Young H, Tittensor DP, Brumbaugh D, Madin E, Holmes K, Dunbar R, Smith J, Lotze HK, Arnold, SN, Worm B (2010) Acute effects of removing large fish from a near-pristine coral reef. Marine Biology 157:2739-2750.

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Tittensor DP, Mora C, Ricard D, Jetz W, Lotze HK, E. Vanden Berghe, Worm B (2010) Global patterns and predictors of marine biodiversity across taxa. Nature 466: 1098-1101. doi:10.1038/nature09329.

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Ward-Paige C, Mills Flemming J, Lotze HK (2010) Overestimating fish counts by non-instantaneous visual censuses: Consequences for population and community descriptions. PLoS ONE 5(7): e11722. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011722.

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Ward-Paige C, Mora C, Lotze HK, Pattengill-Semmens C, McClenachan L, Arias-Castro E, Myers RA (2010) Large-scale absence of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean: a footprint of human pressures. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11968. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011968.

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Worm B, Lotze HK, Jonsen I, Muir C (2010) The Future of Marine Animal Populations. Chapter 16. In: McIntyre AD (ed) Life in the World's Oceans: Diversity, Distribution and Abundance. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, pp 315-330.


Lotze HK, Glaser M (2009) Ecosystem services of semi-enclosed marine systems. In: Urban ER Jr, Sundby B, Malanotte-Rizzoli P, Melillo J (eds.) Watersheds, Bays and Bounded Seas. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 227-249.

Lotze HK, Muir C (2009) Past Lives - Piecing together the ecological history of coastal ecosystems can inform today's marine management. Webb T, Holt A (eds) Marine Ecology: Special issue. Bulletin of the British Ecological Society 40: 14-16.

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Lotze HK, Worm B (2009) Historical baselines for large marine animals. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 24(5): 254-262.

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Snelgrove P, Flitner M, Ekau W, Glaser M, Lotze HK, Phillipart K, Sompongchaiyakul P, Yuwono E (2009) Governance and management of ecosystem services in semi-enclosed marine systems. In: Urban ER Jr, Sundby B, Malanotte-Rizzoli P, Melillo J (eds.) Watersheds, Bays and Bounded Seas. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 49-76.

Worm B, Hilborn R, Baum JK, Branch TA, Collie JS, Costello C, Fogarty MJ, Fulton EA, Hutchings JA, Jennings S, Jensen OP, Lotze HK, Mace PA, McClanahan TR, Minto C, Palumbi SR, Parma AM, Ricard D, Rosenberg AA, Watson R, Zeller D (2009) Rebuilding global fisheries. Science 325: 578-585, doi: 10.1126/science.1173146.

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Worm B, Lotze HK (2009) Changes in marine biodiversity as an indicator of climate change. In: Letcher T (ed) Climate change: observed impacts on Planet Earth. Elsevier, pp 263-279.

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Anderson S, Lotze HK, Shackell N (2008) Evaluating the knowledge base for expanding low-trophic level fisheries in Atlantic Canada. Canadian Journal for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 65: 2553-2571.

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Coll M, Lotze HK, Romanuk T (2008) Structural degradation in Mediterranean Sea food webs: testing ecological hypotheses using stochastic and mass-balance modelling. Ecosystems 11: 939-960.

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Ferretti F, Myers RA, Serena F, Lotze HK  (2008) Shark declines in the Mediterranean Sea. Lenfest Ocean Program Research Series Report April 2008.

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Ferretti F, Myers RA, Serena F, Lotze HK (2008) Loss of large predatory sharks from the Mediterranean Sea. Conservation Biology 22(4): 952-964.

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Lotze HK, Flitner M, Urban E Jr (2008) Coastal basins on the edge - Cumulative effects of multiple human activities where land and ocean meet. UNESCO-SCOPE-UNEP Policy Briefs No.7, September 2008.

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Lotze HK, Worm B (2008) Why we should care about the ocean. In: Flight N (ed) A Passion for This Earth: Reflections Inspired by David Suzuki. Greystone Books, Vancouver, Canada, pp 139-148.

Peterson CH, Barber R, Christian RR, Cottingham K, Lotze HK, Simenstad C, Piehler M, Wilson JW (2008) National Estuaries. In: Julius SH, West JM (eds) Preliminary review of adaptation options for climate-sensitive ecosystems and resources. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA, 873 p.


Diaz-Pulido G, McCook LJ, Larkum AWD, Lotze HK, Raven JA, Schaffelke B, Smith JE, Steneck RS (2007) Vulnerability of macroalgae of the Great Barrier Reef to climate change. Marshall PA, Johnson J (eds) Climate change and the Great Barrier Reef. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville, pp 153-192.

Lotze HK  (2007) Rise and fall of fishing and marine resource use in the Wadden Sea, southern North Sea. Fisheries Research 87: 208-218.

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Worm B, Barbier EB, Beaumont N, Duffy JE, Folke C, Halpern BS, Jackson JBC, Lotze HK, Micheli F, Palumbi SR, Sala E, Selkoe K, Stachowicz JJ, Watson R (2007) Response to comments on 'Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services'. Science 316: 1285.

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Worm B, Barbier EB, Beaumont N, Duffy JE, Folke C, Halpern BS, Jackson JBC, Lotze HK, Micheli F, Palumbi SR, Sala E, Selkoe K, Stachowicz JJ, Watson R (2007) Biodiversity loss in the ocean: How bad is it? Response Science 316: 1282-1284.

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Worm B, Lotze HK, Myers RA (2007) Ecosystem effects of fishing and whaling in the North Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. In: Estes JA et al. (eds) Whales, whaling and ocean ecosystems. University of California Press, Berkley, CA, USA, pp 333-341.

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Lotze HK, Lenihan HS, Bourque BJ, Bradbury RH, Cooke RG, Kay MC, Kidwell SM, Kirby MX, Peterson CH, Jackson JBC (2006) Depletion, degradation, and recovery potential of estuaries and coastal seas. Science 312: 1806-1809.

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Worm B, Barbier EB, Beaumont N, Duffy JE, Folke C, Halpern BS, Jackson JBC, Lotze HK, Micheli F, Palumbi SR, Sala E, Selkoe KA, Stachowicz JJ, Watson R (2006) Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services. Science 314: 787-760.

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Worm B, Lotze HK (2006) Effects of eutrophication, grazing, and algal blooms on rocky shores. Limnology and Oceanography 51:569-579.

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Lotze HK, Reise K (eds) (2005) Ecological history of the Wadden Sea. Helgoland Marine Research 59.

Lotze HK, Reise K, Worm B, Van Beusekom J, Busch M, Ehlers A, Heinrich D, Hoffmann RC, Holm P, Jensen C, Knottnerus OS, Langhanki N, Prummel Vollmer M, Wolff WJ  (2005) Human transformation of the Wadden Sea ecosystem through time: a synthesis. Helgoland Marine Research 59:71-83.

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Lotze HK (2005) Radical changes in the Wadden Sea fauna and flora over the last 2000 years. Helgoland Marine Research 59: 71-83.

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Worm B, Sandow M, Oschlies A, Lotze HK, Myers RA (2005) Global patterns of predator diversity in the open oceans. Science 309: 1365-1369.

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Lotze HK, Milewski I (2004) Two centuries of multiple human impacts and successive changes in a North Atlantic food web. Ecological Applications 14: 1428-1447.

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Lotze HK, Milewski I, Worm B (2004) Two hundred years of ecosystem change in the outer Bay of Fundy, Part I . Changes in species and the food web. In Wells PG, Daborn GR, Percy JA, Harvey J, Rolston SJ (eds). Health of the Bay of Fundy: assessing key issues. Environment Canada . Atlantic Region, Occasional Report. 21: 320-326.

Lotze HK (2004) Ecological history of the Wadden Sea: 2000 years of human-induced change in a unique coastal ecosystem. Wadden Sea Newsletter 30: 22-23.

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Lotze HK (2004) Repetitive history of resource depletion and mismanagement: the need for a shift in perspective. In: Browman HI, Stergiou KI (eds) Perspectives on ecosystem-based approaches to the management of marine resources. Marine Ecology Progress Series 274: 282-285.

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Milewski I, Lotze HK (2004) Two hundred years of ecosystem change in the outer Bay of Fundy, Part II . A history of contaminants: sources and potential impacts. In Wells PG, Daborn GR, Percy JA, Harvey J, Rolston SJ (eds). Health of the Bay of Fundy: assessing key issues. Environment Canada . Atlantic Region, Occasional Report 21: 327-333.

Wahl M, Molis M, Davis A, Dobretsov S, Dürr ST, Johansson J, Kinley J, Kirugara D, Langer M, Lotze HK, Thiel M, Thomason JC, Worm B, Zeevi Ben-Yosef D (2004) UV effects that come and go: a global comparison of marine benthic community level impacts. Global Change Biology 10:1962-1972.

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Worm B, Lotze HK (2004) Ecosystem impact and management of fisheries in Canadian Marine Protected Areas. World Wildlife Fund, Toronto, Canada.


Worm B, Lotze HK, Myers RA (2003) Predator diversity hotspots in the blue ocean. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 100: 9884-9888.

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Lotze HK, Milewski I (2002) A unique marine oasis in the Maritimes: an environmental history of Passamaquoddy Bay, NB. Between the Issues. Ecology Action Centre Publication, Fall 2002, Vol. 20(3): 5-7.

Lotze HK, Milewski I (2002) Environmental history of a unique marine oasis in the Maritimes. Elements. New Brunswick Environmental Network.

Lotze HK, Milewski I (2002) Two hundred years of ecosystem and food web changes in the Quoddy region, outer Bay of Fundy. Conservation Council of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, 188 p.

Lotze HK, Worm B, Molis M, Wahl M (2002) Effects of UV radiation and consumers on recruitment and succession of a marine macrobenthic community. Marine Ecology Progress Series 243: 57-66.

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Lotze HK, Worm B (2002) Complex interaction of ecological and climatic controls on macroalgal recruitment. Limnology and Oceanography 47: 1734–1741.

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Worm B, Lotze HK, Hillebrand H, Sommer U (2002) Consumer versus resource control of species diversity and ecosystem functioning. Nature 417: 848-851.

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Lotze HK, Worm B, Sommer U (2001) Strong bottom-up and top-down control of early life stages of macroalgae. Limnology and Oceanography 46: 749-757.

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Worm B, Lotze HK, Sommer U (2001) Algal propagule banks modify competition, consumer and resource control on Baltic rocky shores. Oecologia 128:281-293.

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Hillebrand H, Worm B, Lotze HK (2000) Marine microbenthic community structure regulated by nitrogen loading and herbivore pressure. Marine Ecology Progress Series 204: 27-38.

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Lotze HK, Schramm W (2000) Can ecophysiological traits explain species dominance patterns in macroalgal blooms? Journal of Phycology 36: 287-295.

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Lotze HK, Worm B, Sommer U (2000) Propagule banks, herbivory and nutrient supply control population development and dominance patterns in macroalgal blooms. Oikos 85: 46-58.

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Lotze HK, Worm B (2000) Variable and complementary effects of herbivores on different life stages of bloom-forming macroalgae. Marine Ecology Progress Series 200: 167-175.

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Worm B, Lotze HK, Sommer U (2000) Coastal food-web structure, carbon storage and nitrogen retention regulated by consumer pressure and nutrient loading. Limnology and Oceanography 45: 339-349.

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Worm B, Lotze HK (2000) Nutrient pollution, low-trophic level harvesting and cumulative human impacts on coastal ecosystems. In: Rockweed: Science and Management. Huntsman Marine Science Center, St. Andrews, NB, Canada, pp. 40-41.

Worm B, Reusch TBH, Lotze HK (2000) In situ nutrient enrichment: methods for marine benthic ecology. International Reviews in Hydrobioloy 85: 359-375.

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Lotze HK, Schramm W, Schories D, Worm B (1999) Control of macroalgal blooms at early developmental stages: Pilayella littoralis versus Enteromorpha spp. Oecologia 119: 46-54.

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Worm B, Lotze HK, Boström C, Engkvist R, Labanauskas V, Sommer U (1999) Marine diversity shift linked to interactions among grazers, nutrients and dormant propagules. Marine Ecology Progress Series 185: 309-314.

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Lotze HK (1998) Population dynamics and species interactions in macroalgal blooms: abiotic versus biotic control at different life-cycle stages. Dissertation, Berichte aus dem Institut für Meereskunde 303: 134 p.


Schories D, Albrecht A, Lotze HK (1997) Historical changes and inventory of macroalgae from Königshafen Bay in the northern Wadden Sea. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 51: 321-341.


Schramm W, Lotze HK, Schories D (1996) Eutrophication and macroalgal blooms in inshore waters of the German Baltic coast: The Schlei Fjord, a case study. In: Rijstenbil JW, Kamermans P, Nienhuis PH (eds) EUMAC Synthesis report. NIOO, Yerseke, The Netherlands, pp. 17-73.


Lotze HK (1994) Phänologische und ökophysiologische Untersuchungen an Grünalgen im Wattenmeer. Diplom thesis, University of Kiel, Germany, 78 p.

Lotze HK (1994) Phenology of mass-occurring green algae: which factors control mass developments? In: Kamermans P, Nienhuis PH (eds) Eutrophication and Macrophytes. Proceedings of the first EUMAC Workshop. NIOO, Yerseke, The Netherlands, pp. 25-35.